Srikakulam District is the extreme Northeastern District of Andhra Pradesh situated within the Geographic Co-Ordinates of 18°-20’ and 19°- 10’ of Northern latitude and 83°-50’ and 84°-50’ of Eastern longitude. The Nagavali, Vamsadhara, Suvarnamukhi, Vegavathi, Mahendratanaya, Gomukhi, Champavathi, Bahuda and Kumbikota Gedda are the important rivers of the District . The Vamsadhara river rises in the Eastern Ghats of Orissa State and enters Srikakulam District in Bhamini Mandal and finally falls into the Bay of Bengal near Kalingapatnam. The Nagavali and Suvarnamukhi rivers also originate in the Eastern Ghats while Nagavali in Vangara Mandal and the confluence joins the Bay of Bengal at Kallepalli near Srikakulam Rising in Pachipenta hills the Vegavathi river flows from west to east, ultimately joining the river Suvarnamukhi, Gomukhi joins Suvarnamukhi at Sirlam Village of Vizianagaram District and Mahendratanaya which is Atributory of Vamsadhara joins the later at Komanapalli Village in Hiramandalam Mandal. Another river of the same Eastern Ghats flows through Mandasa and Sompeta Mandals and falls into Bay of Bengal at Baruva. The Bahuda river also rises in the Eastern Ghats enters into Srikakulam District at Boddapadu Village of Ichapuram Mandal and flows through Ichapuram, Kaviti and Mandasa and enters into Bay of Bengal at Donkuru. The District has a seacoast of 193 Kms.
Boundaries and Topography :
The District is skirted to a distance by Kandivalasagedda, Vamsadhara and Bahuda at certain stretchers of their courses white a line of heights of the great Eastern Ghats run from North East. Vizianagaram District flanks in the south and west while Orissa bounds it on the North and Bay of Bengal on the East. The District derived its name from Srikakulam its headquarters town. Srikakulam District was carved out in 1950 by bifurcating it from Visakhapatnam District. it remained unaffected in its territorial jurisdiction for quite some time. But in November, 1969 the District lost 63 Villages from Saluru Taluk and 44 Villages from Bobbili Taluk on account of their transfer to the then newly constituted Gajapathinagaram Taluk of Visakhapatnam District. Again in May, 1979, the District had undergone major territorial changes on account of the formation of new District with head quarters at Vizianagaram which involved transfer of Salur, Bobbili, Parvathipuram and Cheepurupalli Taluks to the new District.
Land Utilization :
The Geographical area of the District is 583700 Hectares covered by 38 Mandals under three Revenue Divisions Viz., Srikakulam, Palakonda & Tekkali. During the Year 2009-10 the Cultivable land (i.e., Net area Sown, Current fallows and Other fallow lands) was 3,56,654 hectares and it accounted for 61.10percent of the total Geographical area of the district. The Forest Area of the District during 2009-10 is 68,641 hectares accounting for 11.76% this shows half of the State and one – third of the Normal Ecological balance area. Land Put to Non-Agricultural Uses occupied by buildings, roads and railways or under water i.e., rivers, canals and other land put to uses other than Agriculture area is 99,269 hectares accounting for 17.01% of the Geographical area. Barren and Uncultivable Land like mountains, deserts, etc whether such land is in isolated blocks or within cultivated holdings, an extent of 49,687 hectares are comes under and accounted for 8.51%. Under Permanent Pastures and Other Grazing Lands covers 942 hectares accounted for 0.16%, Miscellaneous Tree Crops and Groves not included in the Net Area Sown is 7,451 hectares accounted for 1.27%, Culturable Waste in 2009-10 is 659 hectares accounted for 0.11%, Other Fallow Lands is 17,487 hectares accounted for 2.99%, Current Fallow Lands is 54,523 hectares accounted for 9.34% and Net Area Sown represents 2,84,644 hectares accounting for 48.76%.
Natural Resources :
The Srikakulam District which is situated in North Coastal Plain of the Agro – Climatic Zone and partly in Tribal Areas. The District has two Natural Regions Viz., the Hilly Region called Agency Area, mostly inhabitated by Tribal Population and the Plain Area. There are famous rivers i.e., Vamsadhara, Nagavali flow from North to East in the District. The Major and Medium irrigation Projects in the District numbering 10 such as BRR Vamsadhara Project, Madduvalasa, Thotapalli, Narayanapuram Anicut, Kalingadala Reservoir, Dabarsingi Reservoir, Bondigedda Reservoir, Gajjiligedda Reservoir, Thotapalli Reservoir and Pydigam Project.
Developmental Activities :
The role of Agricultural Sector in District Economy is very significant. However, out of 47.36% of Main Workers in the District Population comes under this category, 32.14 % Cultivators and Agricultural Labours are still dependent on Agriculture. Agriculture in Srikakulam district is mostly Rainfall dependent, Monsoon and Seasonal conditions play a major role in the Agriculture Production.During the year 2009-10, the South-West Monsoon Period, the district received deficit rainfall with negative deviation of -15.3% against Normal. However, North-East Monsoon Rainfall was Scanty Deviation by –37.2%. As compared to Normal, the overall Rainfall for the year was 978.1 mm as against the District Normal of 1162.5 mm there by showing deficit of –15.8%. The Net area sown in the District during 2009-10 is 2,84,644 hectares as against 3,21,892 hectares in 2008-09 a decrease of 11.57%.
The Gross area irrigated by all sources during the year 2009-10 is 189729 hectares. This accounted for 46.81% of the Gross cropped area as against 48.93% during the year 2008-09.
The District is Backward and the infrastructure is very poor. There are 2714 Primary Education Schools in various Management Enrolled 1.41 Lakhs students, under Upper Primary Schools are 847 covered 1.08 Lakshs students, High Schools are 531 and accounted for 1.61 Lakhs, Junior Colleges are 129 in various Managements, 69 Degree Colleges and one Dr. B.R.Ambedkar University and 12 B.Ed. College, Rajeev Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences attached Medical College is recently established one Dental College under Private Management is in Academic Capacity.
There are 25 Large and Medium Scale Industries in the District involving a total investment of Rs:7750799.80 Lakhs and providing employment to around 7130 persons. In addition to there are around 1101 Tiny and Small Scale Industries and business employment with an investment of Rs:29733.614 lakhs and providing employment 35316 persons. The District offers tremendous potential for establishment of more industries. Such as Large, Medium and Small Scale Industries in view of GOI/GOAP incentives, cheap land and labour cost and Natural resource.
E) Transport And Communications
The district spread with NH5 around 194 Kms from Kandivalasagedda at Ransthalam Mandal to Ichapuram Mandal.